Thursday, August 18, 2011

Conjunctive Adverbs

Conjunctive adverbs are words and phrases that can be used to join two independent clauses. When a conjunctive adverb connects two independent clauses in one sentence, it is preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma. For more information about this use of the semicolon, see the Semicolon page. Examples:
  • Vishnu is famous his many avatars; for example, Rama and Krishna are both avatars of Vishnu.
  • The lion is king of the beasts; nevertheless, he needed the help of a tiny mouse to escape from the hunter's net.
In addition, you can use these adverbs at the beginning of a sentence to create a meaningful link to the previous sentence. When a conjunctive adverb provides a link between two separate sentences, it is followed by a comma. Examples:
  • The Hydra was a savage beast with many heads. Nevertheless, Heracles was able to defeat and kill the monster.
  • Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom. In addition, she was also a goddess of warfare.
  • The god Shiva is famous for his dancing. Indeed, he is sometimes referred to as Nataraja, "Lord of the Dance."
If the conjunctive adverb is inside the sentence, it is set off with commas both before and after:
  • Aesop was born into slavery. Eventually, however, he won his freedom.
  • The dove is a symbol of peace. The eagle, in contrast, is a symbol of war.
Here is a list of some conjunctive adverbs and adverbial phrases organized by function (from the verb useful webpages of Capitol Community College in Hartford, CT):

addition again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, last, moreover, next, second, still, too
comparison also, in the same way, likewise, similarly
concession granted, naturally, of course
contrast although, and yet, at the same time, but at the same time, despite that, even so, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, still, though, yet
emphasis certainly, indeed, in fact, of course
example or illustration after all, as an illustration, even, for example, for instance, in conclusion, indeed, in fact, in other words, in short, it is true, of course, namely, specifically, that is, to illustrate, thus, truly
summary all in all, altogether, as has been said, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to put it differently, to summarize
time sequence after a while, afterward, again, also, and then, as long as, at last, at length, at that time, before, besides, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, in the past, last, lately, meanwhile, moreover, next, now, presently, second, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter, too, until, until now, when

Find out more about here: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS.

The Hydra was a savage beast with many heads.
Nevertheless, Heracles was able to defeat and kill the monster.

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